Historically the eastern half of the Grand Duchy of Moldavia, the territory that is now the republic of Moldova was under Ottoman Turkish control from the 15th century, until its annexation by Russia in 1812. In 1918, it was reoccupied by what had become Romania. It was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1939, and in 1940 was organized as the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. Moldova was again rejoined to Romania 1941-44, but in 1944 passed back to the Soviets. With the breakup of the Soviet Union, Moldova declared its independence on August 27, 1991. During 1992-97 a civil war raged in the Trans-Dnestr Region, between the Moldovan government and ethnic Russians and Ukrainians, who feared that the Moldovan majority would unite the country with Romania. In 1994, a national plebiscite supported independence, and in 1997 a peace accord was signed.