The Ernest Lowenstein Collection
Likely compiled by Heinrich Koehler, a leading stamp expert in early 20th century Europe, the Ernest Lowenstein Collection consists of two albums, Album 1 and Album 2, of Russian stamps overprinted with Ukrainian tridents.
In 1918, Ukraine declared independence from Russia and issued a set of postage stamps, the Shahiv issue, several months later. The low values of the new stamps required their use in conjunction with Russian stamps already in circulation. The Ukrainian Ministry of Posts decided that Russian stamps could remain in circulation as long as they were overprinted with a trident, Ukraine’s newly adopted national emblem.
Between mid-August and early October 1918, postal districts in Ukraine added the trident emblem to stamps. The action was both symbolic and practical, asserting Ukraine’s status as a sovereign nation while enabling much-needed funds to be directed to the Ukrainian treasury. With no standardized template, trident overprints varied in color, shape, and size. These particular characteristics are studied by experts that classify tridents and trace them to specific postal districts.
What is an Overprint?
An overprint is a design element or text that is added on top of an existing stamp. An overprint might be applied mechanically to a stamp or with a handstamp device made from rubber, metal, or wood.
The trident overprints in the Lowenstein Collection were added using different methods including typography, lithography, and by handstamp. Trident overprints are famous for their lack of uniformity in color, shape, and size.
Monitoring Damage to Ukraine’s Cultural Heritage
The Cultural Heritage Monitoring Lab (CHML) and the Smithsonian Cultural Rescue Initiative (SCRI) are monitoring over 26,000 cultural heritage sites in Ukraine, sharing data and information with colleagues in the country and around the world. The work combines remote sensing, open-source research, and satellite imagery to gather evidence of cultural heritage damage, which can range from structural weakening to the complete destruction of artifacts, land, buildings, or monuments. When they are able to do so safely, CHML and SCRI work with local partners in Ukraine to confirm any suspected damage, and then coordinate efforts to assess structural integrity, collections conditions, necessary specialized inspections, and other long-term evaluation efforts as required. CHML is a partnership between the Virginia Museum of Natural History and SCRI, providing global monitoring capability for cultural heritage sites threatened by armed conflict and natural disaster.
In March 2022, PBS Newshour aired a piece on the work that rescue organizations such as CHML and SCRI are doing in Ukraine.
The theater in Mariupol that was reduced to rubble when it was bombed by Russian forces Wednesday is just one example of the risk the war poses to Ukraine's important cultural sites. Memorials, museums and churches, all places that speak to Ukraine's very identity, are all under threat from Russia's invasion. Jeffrey Brown reports for the PBS arts and culture series, "CANVAS."
The drama theater in the Ukrainian city of Mariupol that was reduced to rubble when it was bombed by Russian forces yesterday is just one example of the damage the war is doing to that country's important cultural sites.
Besides the terrible human toll, memorials, museums and churches, places that speak to Ukraine's very identity, are all also under threat from Russia's invasion.
Jeffrey Brown reports for our arts and culture series, Canvas.
A strike near the Babi Yar memorial commemorating a mass murder of Jews by Germans during World War II. A fire at a beloved folk museum housing precious paintings. Shelling damaging a 16th century monastery and cave complex.
Ihor Poshyvailo, director of the new Maidan Museum in Kyiv, shown here in a model of its future hoped-for construction, says this is also a war on heritage.
Ihor Poshyvalio, Director, Maidan Museum:
The heritage war for identity means that the target is not only territory or some military or civil objects. The target is our historical memory, our cultural traditions, our national and individual identity, our memory and identity as a nation.
That heritage is seen throughout the country in these pre-war images. Ukraine is home to seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the 1,000-year-old Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv, often described as the spiritual home of the capital.
And it has a wide range of old and new museums and cultural institutions.
For a few centuries, when Ukraine was dominated by Austro-Hungarian, Polish, Russian empire, Soviet empire, our culture lay dormant, imprisoned.
And only since regaining our independence in 1991, Ukrainian culture survived its rebirth, revival. And, today, we are rediscovering our culture in many forms and ways.
Now there's devastation in Kharkiv's Central Square, with its architecturally and culturally important buildings, including an opera house.
And in Lviv's historic center, itself a UNESCO Heritage Site, monuments and sculptures are protected with sandbags, museum collections packed and stored as much as possible.
Ihor Poshyvailo was able to move part of his museum's collection to an undisclosed location. He's now in Lviv, where he has helped form a cultural protection coalition to help institutions around the country.
This aid has different forms, depending upon the situation there.
For example, our colleagues need some pocket money, or they need for food, for water, or they need some equipment for example, generators for light, some packaging materials to prepare their collections for evacuation or for keeping them in safer locations, in safer storages.
International organizations, including the Smithsonian Institution, are also involved.
Corine Wegener heads the Smithsonian's Cultural Rescue Initiative.
Corine Wegener, Smithsonian Cultural Rescue Initiative:
This really is sort of the worst-case scenario. Your country is invaded, and your heritage is there for the taking and for that damage that's caused by the giant kind of munitions that we're seeing being used here.
Wegener, an art historian and former Army Reserve officer, has worked on cultural preservation efforts in conflict zones like Iraq and Syria, as well as natural disasters, such as Haiti's 2010 earthquake.
People are more important, obviously. But culture should come quickly thereafter, because it's the type of resource that you can't replace.
What is your main focus right now?
So far, we're focused on technical advice about packing and crating, about best practices for evacuation of archival materials, for example,
We're trying to work more on logistics of getting materials to Ukraine as best we can through channels in Europe. And then, finally, a later focus will be on this issue of documenting damage and helping colleagues do that in a way that they can be used for future evidence for accountability.
The immediate emergency and, later, accountability. The latter means gathering evidence for possible war crimes violations under the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict, to which both Russia and Ukraine are signatories.
Some of the monitoring and documentation is occurring here at the Cultural Heritage Monitoring Lab at the Virginia Museum of Natural History.
Director Hayden Bassett, an archaeologist, now uses remote sensing and satellites as eyes on the war in Ukraine.
Hayden Basset, Virginia Museum of Natural History: Our job, as we see it, is to minimize the time it takes from going from identification to response, because that's the window where cultural heritage is most vulnerable.
Bassett showed us a database map of cultural sites.
As you can see right here, the blue dots represent an individual cultural heritage site.
Some 20,000 sites in all, using a broad definition of culture, to include statues, libraries, churches, cemeteries and much more. He then focused on the Ivankiv Museum about 50 miles north of Kyiv.
This is February 14, 2022, and this is the museum here. As you can see, there's a lot of snow cover on the ground, but clearly identifiable that the museum is intact.
The next image is from February 27.
In the center is that same building, minus the roof, and the interior of the building has clearly been destroyed. But I would like you to focus a little bit broader surrounding the building.
And, as you will notice, there aren't any impacts immediately surrounding the building. The other structures, residential, are still intact.
That could be evidence, he says, of direct targeting of the museum.
In the meantime, work on the ground continues, ever more dangerous.
Ihor Poshyvailo says there's no choice.
All our cultural heritage, all our collections, they help us not only to rediscover our past, but to strengthen our identity, to feel us as one nation with common past. This is very important to fight for our future.
For the "PBS NewsHour," I'm Jeffrey Brown.
So many awful things coming from this war.
- Peter Bylen, Independent Ukraine, 1918-1920; A Catalog-Checklist of National Postage Stamp Issues as well as Regional Trident Overprints and Occupational Issues (Virginia: Ukrainian Philatelic Resources, 1996).
- Ingert Kuzych, Introductory Handbook of Ukrainian Philately (Virginia: Ukrainian Philatelic Resources, 2005).
- Ukrainian Philatelic and Numismatic Society (UPNS).
- Roman Procyk, “Why Are There So Many Different Podilla Tridents?”Ukrainian Philatelist, No. 124 (2020), Article of Distinction: UPNS Featured Article 2020 (stamps.org).
- Procyk, Roman, “Handstamped Odesa Type I Tridents,” Ukrainian Philatelist, No. 119 (2019), Article of Distinction: UPNS Featured Article 2018 (stamps.org).
- A lab in rural Virginia is racing to preserve Ukraine’s cultural heritage [Washington Post]
- Washington Foreign Press Center Briefing on the Smithsonian’s Cultural Heritage Rescue Work in Ukraine, April 29, 2022 [US State Department / YouTube]
Written by Rebecca Ben-Atar and Jessie Aucoin